Relation between obesity and osteoarthritis

Aboubaydha, Rahaf (2020-03-16)

Obesity has already reached epidemic proportions, affecting more than one billion adults worldwide, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is the major risk factor associated with various diseases, such as resistance to insulin and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), hypertension, dyslipidemia, and certain cancers. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent osteometabolic rheumatic disease and the leading cause of physical incapacity and reduced quality of life for the over 65-year-old population. It is characterized by degradation of the articular cartilage.The relation between obesity and the development of OA was restricted to biomechanical changes in joints, caused by increased body weight, leading to the genesis of an inflammatory process in cartilages, and eventually in the development and progression of the condition


Obesity is currently considered a major public health issue in the world, already reaching epidemic characteristics. Excess weight is the major risk factor associated with various diseases, including osteoporosis osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and osteometabolic diseases. Osteoarthritis is the most severe rheumatic condition and the leading cause of the over 65-year-old population's physical disability and reduced quality of life. This includes mostly the weight-bearing joints-knees and hips. Nevertheless, its prevalence is growing along with the cases of obesity, as well as in other joints, such as hands. The effect of obesity on the production of (OA) is therefore believed to be beyond mechanical overload. The purpose of this report is to correlate the possible mechanisms underlying the genesis and development of these two diseases. Increased fat mass is directly proportional to excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids, resulting in systemic low-grade inflammatory condition and resistance to insulin and leptin. Leptin assumes inflammatory properties at high levels and functions in the articular cartilage, activating the inflammatory process, and altering homeostasis with consequent degeneration of this tissue. It had been concluded that obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis and that physical activity and dietary changes can reverse inflammatory and leptin resistance, decrease progression or prevent osteoarthritis from occurring

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