The Use of Vaccine Against Human Papilloma Virus
Pathogen human papillomavirus belongs to the family papovaviridae. The viron are non-enveloped, 55 nm in diameter and contain a double strand DNA genome. The genetic material is enclosed by an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins. HPV is a group of more than 200 related virus. More than 30 types can be easily spread through sexual contact. Other types of virus are responsible for non genital warts which are not sexually transmitted. HPV is the most common cause of range of conditions in both men and women including precancerous lesion that may progress to cancer. The majority of HPV infection do not cause symptoms and resolve spontaneously but long lasting infection with specific HPV type (most frequently HPV-16 and HPV-18 ) may lead to precancerous lesion which if untreated may progress to cervical cancer. It is also associated with oropharyngeal , anogenital cancers and other conditions in both men and women.(1)
Our immune system usually controls HPV infection but sometimes HPV infection are not successfully controlled by our immune system especially people with weak immune system may be less able to fight HPV and more likely to develop health problems. When high risk HPV persist for many years it can lead to cell changes that if untreated may get worse over time and become cancer. Early detection of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cancer. Three different vaccines, which vary in the number of HPV types they contain and target. The all prophylactic vaccines, designed to prevent initial HPV infection and subsequent HPV-associated lesions.