Relation between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Infective Endocarditis (IE)

omar AL Hejazi, Arwa (2020-03-12)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a public health problem about 75 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with HIV and around 37 million people currently live with HIV (PLWH) [1]. About 1.1 million deaths in 2015 were due to that infection. However, by the end of 2015, they reported more than 2.1 million new cases. Africa appears to be the hardest hit [2]. HIV is one of the two important human T-cell lymphotropic retroviruses (human T-cell leukemia virus) [3]. HIV infects and destroys helper (CD4) T lymphocytes that contribute to cell-mediated immunity loss (immunocompromised) Infective endocarditis (IE) is inflamed reaction due to valve inflammation and the heart's endocarditis layer contributes to vegetation (valvular thrombi) [5], Rare still causes severe illness and death. People at risk of infection used to be people with rheumatic valvular heart disease, those with a history of dental procedures or intravenous users of drugs [5]. Almost all of them found that the incidence of IE in the general population increased from 2,72 in 2003 to 3,49 per 100,000 individual years in 2014[6]. Several population-based studies in Europe have shown that the prevalence of IE has increased in the general population and the intensive care units [6]. With respect to the responsible infectious agents, streptococci and staphylococci are the most common cause of IE (about 80 per cent) in most developed countries


Background: Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) (People living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLWH)) have a high chance of becoming diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE). In order to discuss the association between PLWH and Infective Endocarditis (IE).We'll mention the risk factor for Infective Endocarditis in HIV patients. Methods and materials: A publication review was carried out to discover studies investigating the connection between the human immunodeficiency virus and endocarditis. In Spain two studies were conducted. And the other was carried out in Italy; these two studies were significant in improving the link between human immunodeficiency virus and infectious endocarditis. Results: Most of the studies examined in this study showed a strong association between human immunodeficiency virus and infectious endocarditis cardiovascular diseases, one of which was carried out in Spain and the other in Italy. They were found to have a high correlation between HIV and possibilities of IE infection, particularly in HIV patients with inactive Cart; due to immunocompromised in people with human immunodeficiency virus. Conclusion: the studies have shown that the association between HIV patient and IE disease is highly strong because HIV offers the opportunity for pathogens that can cause IE to enter the body without any impairment in its pathway; which increases the risk of developing IE disease. But they found many factors could increase or decrease the proportion of IE.

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