Antibiotic misuse leads to the emergence of antibiotic resistance

Idris Founas, Norelhuda (2020-03-12)

Antibiotics are a vital addition to modern medicine. Their effect on certain infections have been revolutionary, increasing human life expectancy by a drastic eight years. Since their discovery between 1945 and 1972, antibiotics have aided in the treatment of many infections that would have previously been left untreated. If not for these crucial drugs, modern medicine would be set back by decades, minor surgeries such as appendectomies would become possibly fatal. Antibiotics effectively carry out their function in two ways; either by inhibiting the growth and replication of a bacterium (bacteriostatic) or by outright eradicating the microbes by interrupting the mechanism of their cell wall formation (bactericidal). Their targets are clear; bacterial infections within or on the body. The majority of these drugs are created and produced in laboratories, but are based off natural components. Some antibiotics are highly specialised, effective only against certain types of bacteria


The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine and saved millions of lives. Many decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat. The antibiotic resistance crisis has been attributed to the overuse and misuse of these medications, as well as a lack of new drug development by the pharmaceutical industry due to reduced economic incentives and challenging regulatory requirements. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has classified a number of bacteria as presenting urgent, serious, and concerning threats, many of which are already responsible for placing a substantial clinical and financial burden on the U.S. health care system, patients, and their families. Coordinated efforts to implement new policies, renew research efforts, and pursue steps to manage the crisis are greatly needed. (

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