Correlation between hypervitaminosis D and renal failure

Almofti, Rudaina (2020-03-11)

vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids its an essential nutrient that your body needs for many vital process The main source of vitamin D is in human skin it is produced endogenously ,The epidermal layer of human skin synthesizes vitamin D when exposed to UV radiation in the presence of sunlight a form of vitamin d called choleciferol is synthesized from a derivative of the steroid cholesterol in the skin, the liver converts cholecalciferol to calcidiol which is then converted to calcitriol (the active chemical form of the vitamin) in the kidneys through binding to vitamin d receptor (VDR) , vitamin d facilities intestinal absorption of calcium it stimulates the expression of a number of proteins involved in transporting calcium from the lumen of the intestine across the epithelial cells and into blood The best-studied of these calcium transporters is calbindin(2) . It also stimulates absorption of phosphate and magnesium ions to enable normal mineralization of bone Vitamin D has other roles in the body, including modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation .


Over the past two decades, interest in vitamin D has increased significantly, Besides playing important roles in calcium homeostasis and bone and muscles and overall health vitamin D is made in our bodies through a series of processes that start when our skin is exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation, Based on guidelines by the Institute of Medicine, recommended dietary allowances for vitamin D are 600 IU/day for those aged between 1 and 70 years and 800 IU/day for those aged 71 and above, extremely high doses of vitamin d supplements over an extended period of time cause vitamin d to build up in the blood which leads to serious condition known as hypervitaminosis D(2) ,the main consequence of vitamin D toxicity is a buildup of calcium in your blood (hypercalcemia) High levels of vitamin D metabolites in the blood increases the amount of calcium that the intestine absorbs, which can cause nausea and vomiting, weakness, and frequent urination Symptoms might progress to bone pain and kidney problems nephrocalcinosis can occur if this condition is severe, it can cause permanent kidney damage and eventually renal failure (1)

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