Immunoglobulin Isotypes, C3 -C4 Complement Components, Absolute Eosinophils and Allergen Specific IgE as Biomarkers Correlated to Preschool Wheeze Children
Wheeze chest is a common problem among preschool children, and represents a common disorder characterized by airways obstruction. Almost half of children manifest wheeze chest symptoms before the age of six. Their parents report at least one attack within this period. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG, and IgE), complement, and the level of eosinophils with children’s wheeze chest. Moreover, the level of IgE with the numbers of the attacks per year, age, family history, and eosinophilic count. A total number of a randomized (n=73) preschool children were involved in this study, divided into 2 groups, (n=52) patients with recurrent wheezy chest attacks and (n=21) controls. Samples were analyzed for immunoglobulin isotypes; complement C3, C4, Eosinophils, and specific IgE allergen test. Number of attacks were strongly correlated with IgE with a P-value of (P=0.001), as well as the manifestation with a P-value of (P=0.002), while age was weakly correlated with IgE with a P-value of (P=0.005). The other variables in this study were found to be insignificant, correlating with IgE. Regarding specific allergens, 20 different types were evaluated in patients who had elevated levels of IgE, and the findings were that all patients were not only allergic to 1 type but unlikely to many. Most definitely the majority of the cases shared Dermatophagoides Peter (8 patients) and Dermatophagoidesf ariaeni (7 patients) allergens and so the list goes descending in the number with 2 allergens were not found, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium notatum.