Prevention of HIV transmission to the fetus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),when HIV enters the bloodstream by way of body fluids, the virus invades and kills CD4 cells. CD4 cells are key cells of the immune system. When these cells are destroyed, the body is less able to fight disease. AIDS occurs when the number of CD4 cells decreases below a certain level and the person gets sick with diseases that the immune system would normally fight off. HIV continues to be a major global public health issue. In 2016, an estimated 36.7 million people were living with HIV (including 1.8 million children) – with a global HIV prevalence of 0.8% among adults.1 2 Around 30% of these same people do not know that they have the virus.HIV can be transmitted through the body fluid (blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids, and breast milk), so it can transmitted from the mother to the fetus which called perinatal transmission. it happened:1. During pregnancy, HIV can pass through the placenta and infect the fetus.2.During labor and delivery, the baby may be exposed to the virus in the mother’s blood and other fluids. Once this occurs, the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby increases. Most babies who get HIV from their mothers become infected around the time of delivery.3.Breastfeeding also can transmit the virus to the baby
Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This report documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2011–2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms.