The Relation Between Gut Microbial Flora and Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. . Leaky gut syndrome: is the destruction of the integrity of the gut wall to the point of allowing particles of undigested food and toxins to enter the blood stream. It is associated with many chronic diseases, including diabetes, lupus, and MS (multiple sclerosis). The intestinal epithelial lining, together with factors secreted from it, forms a barrier that separates the host from the environment. In pathologic conditions, the permeability of the epithelial lining may be compromised by activation of zonulin (is a protein that modulates the permeability of tight junctions between cells of the wall of the digestive tract )allowing the passage of toxins, antigens, and bacteria in the lumen to enter the blood stream creating a “leaky gut. . Growing evidence shows that the gut microbiota is important in supporting the epithelial barrier and therefore plays a key role in the regulation of environmental factors that enter the body. . Therefore, it is hypothesized that modulating the gut microbiota can serve as a potential method for regulating intestinal permeability and may help to alter the course of autoimmune diseases in susceptible individuals.
Autoimmune disorders are characterized by the generation of autoantibodies against self-antigens that attack the body’s own tissues, resulting in damage. Genetic and environmental triggers have been long known as the major contributors to the development of autoimmunity. Increasing evidence in recent years suggests that microbial translocation and intestinal barrier dysfunction, which may be affected by gut microbiota, are another important causative element for autoimmune disorders. This reporte summarizes the role of microbial translocation and leaky gut syndrome in autoimmune diseases.