Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease through Fetal cell transplantation, Gene therapy & Surgery.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common, occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called "parkinsonism", or a "parkinsonian syndrome". The cause of Parkinson's disease is generally unknown but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. This results in a decrease in dopamine in these areas. The reason for this cell death is poorly understood but involves the build-up of proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used to rule out other diseases
Parkinson’s disease symptoms can be reduced with intra-striatal transplantation of human fetal mesencephalic tissue, rich in dopaminergic neurons, in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show that cell replacement can work and, in some cases, induce major, long-lasting improvement. 1 Gene therapy can also be used and it involves the insertion of genes that provide specific genetic instructions that cells use to produce a desired protein. The treatments produce proteins that are involved in normal cellular processes and may therefore be less likely to cause side effects. Moreover, gene therapy can be targeted to a specific location where the treatment is needed, which also may limit possible side effects. 2 Finally, Patients who fluctuate between "on medication" and "off medication" states are usually good candidates for the surgical intervention which are Thalamotomy and pallidotomy & Deep Brain Stimulation. The major risk associated with surgical procedures is a 2% risk of stroke