Effect of caffeine consumption during pregnancy
Caffeine is one of the most commonly consumed stimulants in the general population. It is found in a variety of foods and beverages, including coffee, tea, chocolate, cocoa products, soft drinks, and energy drinks. In addition, it is increasingly used as an ingredient in prescription and over-the-counter medications for colds, influenza, headache, menstrual symptoms, weight loss, and central nervous system stimulation. The effects of caffeine on the body are mediated via interaction with a number of receptors, including adenosine, adrenergic, cholinergic γ-aminobutyric acid, and serotonin receptors. After ingestion, caffeine is readily absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed to the tissues. During pregnancy, elimination of caffeine is prolonged and it rapidly passes all biological membranes, including the blood-brain and placenta barriers, resulting in exposure of the fetus and infants poorly metabolize caffeine until 3 months of age. A maximum intake level of caffeine for pregnant women has been stipulated by several authorities, most of which agree that it should not exceed 200 mg/day
Caffeine crosses the placenta to your baby. Although you may be able to handle the amounts of caffeine you feed your body, your baby cannot. Your baby’s metabolism is still maturing and cannot fully metabolize the caffeine. Numerous studies on animals have shown that caffeine can cause spontaneous abortion , some behavior change and effect on infant growth and childhood weight.