Complications of Sjögren syndrome
Sjogren syndrome predominantly affects middle-aged females (the female: male ratio is about 9:1), Cause of Sjögren syndrome is unclear, However genetic factors are thought to be important in increasing the susceptibility of an individual to external environmental factors, which then trigger the disease. Sjogren syndrome occurs with increased frequency in patients with particular combinations of the HLA class II major histocompatibility genes, supporting a genetic role, and several viruses, especially Epstein-Barr virus have been suggested as potential trigger factors. Immunological mechanisms leading to destruction of glandular tissue probably involve mainly T cells and their associated cytokines.
Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected , characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and acinar destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands, leading to dry eyes and dry mouth. . In about half of the cases the syndrome occurs in association with another autoimmune disease, most frequently rheumatoid arthritis or sys- temic lupus thematosis. On this basis the syndrome is divided into: (1) primary Sjogren syndrome the combination of dry mouth xerostomia), and dry eyes (xerophthalmia or keratoconjunctivitis sicca) or (2) secondary Sjogren syndrome the triad of xerostomia, xerophthalmia, and an autoimmune connective tissue disease (usually rheumatoid arthritis)