Revealing innovative JAK1 and JAK3 inhibitors: a comprehensive study utilizing QSAR, 3D-Pharmacophore screening, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, and MM/GBSA analyses

Cacciatore, Ivana ; Alnajjar, Radwan ; Hanine, Hadni ; Aouidate, Adnane ; Mothana, Ramzi A. ; Alanzi, Abdullah R. ; Elhallaoui, Menana ; Faris, Abdelmoujoud (2024-03-09)


The heterocycle compounds, with their diverse functionalities, are particularly effective in inhibiting Janus kinases (JAKs). Therefore, it is crucial to identify the correlation between their complex structures and biological activities for the development of new drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cancer. In this study, a diverse set of 28 heterocyclic compounds selective for JAK1 and JAK3 was employed to construct quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using multiple linear regression (MLR). Artificial neural network (ANN) models were employed in the development of QSAR models. The robustness and stability of the models were assessed through internal and external methodologies, including the domain of applicability (DoA). The molecular descriptors incorporated into the model exhibited a satisfactory correlation with the receptor-ligand complex structures of JAKs observed in X-ray crystallography, making the model interpretable and predictive. Furthermore, pharmacophore models ADRRR and ADHRR were designed for each JAK1 and JAK3, proving effective in discriminating between active compounds and decoys. Both models demonstrated good performance in identifying new compounds, with an ROC of 0.83 for the ADRRR model and an ROC of 0.75 for the ADHRR model. Using a pharmacophore model, the most promising compounds were selected based on their strong affinity compared to the most active compounds in the studied series each JAK1 and JAK3. Notably, the pharmacokinetic, physicochemical properties, and biological activities of the selected compounds (As compounds ZINC79189223 and ZINC66252348) were found to be consistent with their therapeutic effects in RA, owing to their nontoxic, cholinergic nature, absence of P-glycoprotein, high gastrointestinal absorption, and ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, ADMET properties were assessed, and molecular dynamics and MM/GBSA analysis revealed stability in these molecules.

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